A Clean Hydrogen Future Emerges in Kenya

Power Africa
3 min readMay 17, 2024


Power Africa is guiding Kenya’s transition to green hydrogen, unlocking investment in clean energy technology to accelerate growth.

A section of the geothermal energy complex at Olkaria in Naivasha.
A section of the geothermal energy complex at Olkaria in Naivasha. Kenya will be looking to renewable resources at Olkaria to power the production of green hydrogen and ammonia for use in the manufacture of fertilizers. Photo Credit: Power Africa

Power Africa is assisting the Government of Kenya with its goal to unlock investment in green hydrogen to drive economic growth, agricultural development, and industrial progress. By providing critical market insights and fostering partnerships, Power Africa is supporting Kenya to capitalize on its abundant natural resources to achieve 100 percent renewable energy by 2030. Power Africa is assisting the Government and sustainable energy developers in the agriculture sector, a Kenya Vision 2030 priority economic sector, by exploring market opportunities to produce ammonia, a key ingredient in fertilizer, using green hydrogen.

The standard ammonia production process involves combining hydrogen and nitrogen using fossil fuels to both create the hydrogen and power the molecular synthesis. By using geothermal energy to produce green hydrogen and to power the combination process, Kenya can produce green ammonia and reduce reliance on fossil fuels. In this way, Kenya aims to produce affordable and sustainable fertilizers to boost agricultural productivity while reducing carbon emissions.

Power Africa data shows that by 2033, fertilizer demand in Kenya will increase by over 60 percent, from 600,000 metric tons to one million metric tons. In addition to planning for future green hydrogen and green ammonia production, Kenya will need to create favorable tax conditions for ammonia inputs to attract investor interest and unlock financing.

Power Africa also analyzed local capacity to support green hydrogen fertilizer production, identifying companies that offer related goods and services and in-country hydrogen development initiatives. Our research identified regional demand and supply frameworks, including sources of fertilizers, distribution, and pricing. Over 60 percent of companies surveyed are ready or have the potential to support the green hydrogen industry, providing opportunities for rapid transition and future employment growth.

A steam drilling rig at Menengai in Kenya
A steam drilling rig at Menengai in Kenya. Geothermal energy provides a sustainable energy source to power the production of green hydrogen. Photo Credit: Nyaga Ireri for Power Africa

Impact and Next Steps

Power Africa shared these findings with the Government of Kenya, energy interest groups, private sector stakeholders, and educational institutions to guide local capacity development, highlight pathways for policy making, and identify business opportunities in green hydrogen technology investment. Kenya’s Ministry of Energy took quick action to establish a working group to develop Kenya’s green hydrogen strategy and roadmap as well as guidelines for green hydrogen and its derivatives.

Kenya is producing nearly 80 percent (2,756 MW) of its electricity from renewable sources and is working to achieve 100 percent renewable energy by 2030. Green hydrogen will play a significant role in meeting this target.

To advance this new market, the Kenyan government is encouraging local investment, research, and technology development, building the necessary infrastructure, and updating policies and regulations to enable hydrogen projects, while forging international partnerships to speed up technology and skills transfer. Power Africa is working with the government, private sector developers, and investors in support of Kenya’s efforts, exploring new market opportunities and sharing crucial market evidence to guide policymaking and investments.

Green hydrogen offers a sustainable means to grow Kenya’s climate change-resilient economy. Power Africa’s studies provide crucial market evidence to guide Kenya’s green hydrogen-powered fertilizer production. Beyond agriculture, hydrogen can support power supply and transportation, reducing Kenya’s dependence on imports.

By working with developers, the government, and investors on high-potential green hydrogen entry points, Power Africa is bringing this exciting clean energy technology to East Africa.



Power Africa

A U.S. Government-led partnership that seeks to add 30,000 MW and 60 million electricity connections in sub-Saharan Africa by 2030 > https://bit.ly/2yPx3lJ